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C language Tutorial

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à Computer

Computer is a set of electronics devices, electrical devices, electromechanical devices, system software’s and application software’s etc.

Example: Electronics devices: Microprocessor, Motherboard etc.

Electrical devices: SMPS, Monitor, Speaker etc.

Electromechanical devices: Keyboard, Mouse etc.

System software’s: Operating System, Device Driver etc.

Application software’s: Word Editor, Audio/ Video Player etc.

à Language

Language is a way of communication using which we give and take instructions.

Example: Hindi, English, Urdu etc.

à C Language

C is a computer language using which we give instructions to the computer.

C language is developed by Dennis Richie at AT&T Bell Laboratory New Jersy U.S.A. by restoring features of Basic Combined Programming Language (BCPL) and B language in 1972.

In 1980 it is recognized by American National Standard Institute (ANSI).

à How C language works?

C language is implemented using compiler software which provides us Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for typing C instructions, compiling and linking facilities.

Actually the instructions written in C language is understandable by programmer but not by machine. The C compiler translates C instructions into machine understandable language.

Some C compilers are:

Turbo C/ C++, Borland C/ C++, Visual C++ for Windows OS

CC, gcc, gnu, g++ for UNIX OS

à Features of C Language

1. Modularity

Structured Programming Language

C language supports to write set of instructions/ statements in four types of controlling statements.

I. Sequential Control Statement

Instructions are executed one by one.

II. Conditional or Selection Control Statement

Instructions are executed according to condition. C language provides if-else statement for this purpose.

III. Case or Choice Control Statement

Instructions are executed according to choice. C language provides switch-case statement for this purpose.

IV. Loop or Iterative Control Statement

Instructions are executed repeatedly according to condition. C language provides do-while,

while, for statement for this purpose.

1. Modularity

Dividing a program into a number of smaller sub programs is called modularity.

The C program can be divided into number of smaller sub programs called function.

2. Reusability

Once the function has been defined then the function can be used by other function as many times as required.

This feature is called reusability.

3. Portability

Source code of the program written on a C compiler can be exported to another compiler with little bit modification.

4. Supports Wide Range of Character Set

Alphabet: A to Z, a to z

Digits: 0 to 9

Special Character: ~ ` ! @ # $ % ^ & * ( ) _ - + = | \ { } [ ] : ; ? / > . < ,

5. Limited no of Keywords

As per ANSI C language has only 32 built-in keywords, so it is easy to remember to use.

ANSI Keywords

































à Data Type

The type of data identification or recognition provide by programmer is called data type.

C language supports various data types and are categorized as









Last Updated on Thursday, 11 April 2013 05:35

Strassen Algorithm

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Strassen algorithm
The standard method of matrix multiplication of two n × n
matrices takes O(n3) operations.( n to power cube)
Strassen’s algorithm is a Divide-and-Conquer algorithm that
is asymptotically faster, i.e. O(nlg 7).(n to power ln 7)
The usual multiplication of two 2 × 2 matrices takes 8
multiplications and 4 additions. Strassen showed how two
2 × 2 matrices can be multiplied using only 7 multiplications
and 18 additions.
Imagine that A and B are each partitioned into four square
Sub-matrices, each sub matrix having dimensions n/2× n/2.
A11 A12       B11 B12      C11 C12
A21 A22    * B21 B22 =    C21 C22
, where
C11 = A11*B11 +A12*B21
C12 = A11*B12 +A12*B22
C21 = A21*B11 +A22*B21
C22 = A21*B12 +A22*B22
Strassen’s algorithm 
Strassen “observed” that:
C11 C12        P5 +P4 − P2 +P6       P1 +P2
C21 C22  =         P3 +P4              P5 +P1 − P3 − P7
, where
P1 = A11 (B12 − B22)
P2 = (A11 +A12) B22
P3 = (A21 +A22) B11
P4 = A22 (B21 − B11)
P5 = (A11 +A22) (B11 +B22)
P6 = (A12 − A22) (B21 +B22)
P7 = (A11 − A21) (B11 +B12)
T(n) = 7T(n2 )+cn2, where c is a fixed constant. The term
cn2th captures the time for the matrix additions and
subtractions needed to compute P1, ..., P7 and C11, ...,C22.
• The solution works out to be:
T(n) = _(nlg7) = O(n2.81)
Last Updated on Monday, 18 February 2013 10:18


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Language is the way of communication.


English, Hindi, Urdu, Arabi, French etc.

Last Updated on Friday, 25 February 2011 05:43

Asymptotic Notation

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Last Updated on Thursday, 18 April 2013 09:37

C Language

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C is the one of the powerful language, it supports to write instruction in four types of controlling statements.

1. Sequential Control Statement.

2. Condition Control Statement.

3. Case Control Statement

4. Loop/ Iteration Control Statement.


Last Updated on Monday, 26 November 2012 10:48
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